• Physical Context
    Project Site
    Bhutan Site Map
    0908-10_Bhutan_Covered Walkway 1
  • History

    The Constitution of The Kingdom of Bhutan

    Royal Government of Bhutan

    The national Constitution Committee started drafting the Constitution of the Kingdom of Bhutan in 2001. The Draft Constitution was distributed to the people in 2005, followed by public consultation. Its implementation established parliamentary democracy in the country.

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    The Royal Government of Bhutan

    Royal Government of Bhutan

     In 1998, His Majesty devolved executive powers to the council of ministers that was elected by the chimis (Members of Parliament) of National Assembly (parliament). Different constituencies consisting of one or more gewogs in turn elect the chimis. The king is now the head of the state.The government is elected by the parliament for a five-year term, with the head of the government or post of prime ministers rotating amongst the five ministers securing maximum votes.

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    The Ministry of Works and Human Settlement

    Royal Government of Bhutan

    The Ministry of Works and human Settlement was established in 2003 with the two main technical Departments, Department of Roads and the Department of Urban Development and Engineering Services.

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    Department of Urban Development and Engineering Services

    Royal Government of Bhutan

    Mission: To achieve a balanced and sustainable development of human settlements, provisions of basic infrastructure, conservation of environmental character and culture, and provision of safe and affordable housing for all.

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    The King of Bhutan, Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck


    Jigme Khesar is the fifth in a line of hereditary rulers who have reigned in Bhutan for the last 100 years.

    View his Profile       Read his Biography

  • History

    Monastic Body of Bhutan

    Drukpa Council

    Bhutan is regarded as one of the Buddhist countries where Buddhism flourishes uninterrupted. Its culture, customs, history and landscape bear the most venerable traces of the influence of this noble religion. Historically, Buddhism was first spread to Bhutan in the 7th century A.D.

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    Bhutanese Buddhism

    Bhutan: A Country Study

    The majority of Bhutan’s Buddhists are adherents of the Drukpa subsect of the Kargyupa (literally, oral transmission) school, one of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism, which is itself a combination of the Theravada (monastic), Mahayana (messianic), and Tantrayana (apocalyptic) forms of Buddhism

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  • Statistics

    Background Notes

    U.S. Department of State

    Bhutan’s early history is steeped in mythology and remains obscure. It may have been inhabited as early as 2000 B.C., but not much was known until the introduction of Tibetan Buddhism in the 9th century A.D. when turmoil in Tibet forced many monks to flee to Bhutan. In the 12th century A.D., the Drukpa Kagyupa school was established and remains the dominant form of Buddhism in Bhutan today. The country’s political history is intimately tied to its religious history and the relations among the various monastic schools and monasteries.

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  • Physical Context

    Building Rules 2002

    Royal Government of Bhutan

    These rules shall be called the Bhutan Building Rules – 2002 (BBR-2002) and shall come into force with effect from 1st January 2003. These rules shall apply to all the declared urban areas and supersede all other rules and circulars on building regulations.

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    Traditional Architecture Guidelines

    Royal Government of Bhutan

    History has told us that the incursion of industrialization and modernization has often taken over centuries old traditions and cultures in many countries. In Bhutan such influences can be observed in the border towns and in the urban areas where modernization and industrialization has encroached into our rich and vibrant traditional values and cultural heritage. The Royal Government of Bhutan, sensing the danger of losing traditional values and culture, has taken steps to preserve and promote the kingdom’s distinctive identity.

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    Bhutan: A Country Study

    Bhutanese housing has a distinct character from that of other Himalayan countries. Relatively spacious compared with those of neighboring societies, houses took advantage of natural light and, because of the steep terrain, were usually built in clusters rather than in rows. Timber, stone, clay, and brick were typical construction materials in upland Ngalop areas.

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    Dzongs of Bhutan

    On Bhutanese and Tibetan Dzongs

    Most distinct and magnificent, the Dzong (fortress) is an architectural masterpiece with as much interest in its origin as to its functions and beauty. Probably the most defining factor which distinguishes the Dzongs from other forms of architecture around the world is the fact that they were in the past and are still today multifunctional.

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  • Physical Context
    Environmental Policy

    Forest Policy

    Ministry of Agriculture and Forests

    In Bhutan, forest degradation, caused by anthropogenic and natural factors, is a major problem. Over the last 41 years, the broadleaved forest area has decreased between 4 and 6 percent. The area of agricultural land has not increased since 1989. The main causes of forest degradation are over harvesting of timber and firewood, poor logging practices, forest fires, overgrazing, habitat destruction and pollution.

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  • Client

    Zhung Dratshung, Central Monastic Body


    Thought the monastic establishment does not form a part of the political structure of Bhutan, it has a vital role to play in the socio-cultural life of the people. The monastic community no longer remains within the confines of the Dzongs but actively participates in social work and in the improvement of the lives of the people. With the support from the government, the clergy comprises the Zhung Dratshung (central monastic body) and Dzongkhag Rabdey (district monastic bodies). The current strength of the monastic body is about 5,000 registered monks.


    Mary Ann Tsao, Bhutan Elder Sangha Sanctuary, LTD

    Owner Representative/Project Leader

  • Consultants

    Emi Kiyota 

    IBASHO, Age Friendly Design Consultant

    Thanun Buranapawang

    Three Signs Studio Co, Project Architect

    Pern Gyaltsen

    GANDHARA Designs, Project Architect

    KPK Management Co.

    Project Team Leader

    Bhutan Professional Services

    Bhutan Project Manager

    Tham and Wong Co.

    Structural Engineer


    M&E Engineer

    Rignam Construction

    Contractor for Mock Up


  • T&M Team

    Calvin Tsao

    Zack McKown

    Jonathan Hoover