• Physical Context
    Google Earth View
  • Physical Context
    Business Area
  • Statistics

    Background Notes

    U.S. Department of State

    Singapore is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. The annual population growth rate for 2011 was 2.1%, including resident foreigners. Singapore has a varied linguistic, cultural, and religious heritage. Malay is the national language, but Chinese, English, and Tamil also are official languages. English is the language of administration and also is widely used in the professions, businesses, and schools.

    Link to the full report.


    Population Trends 2011

    Department of Statistics, Singapore

    Population size, structure and changes have important implications for production, investment and consumption activities as well as community development, social networks and kinship ties. A good understanding of demographic forces and emerging trends is useful for policy makers, planners, businesses and the academia.

    The Singapore Department of Statistics compiles, monitors and analyses Singapore‟s population statistics and indicators in detail. A report on Population Trends that puts together different aspects of demographic statistics is released annually. Population Trends 2011 is the seventh edition of the annual series.

    The report comprises five chapters, namely, “Population‟, “Households and Housing‟, “Family Formation and Dissolution‟, “Fertility‟ and “Mortality‟.

    Read the full PDF.


  • History
    South East Asia

    A Short History of South East Asia

    Stanford University

    South East Asia is taken in this history to include the countries of the Asian mainland south of China, from Burma in the west to Vietnam in the east and the islands from Sumatra in the west to the Philippines and New Guinea in the east.

    It does not include Taiwan (Formosa), whose history seems to be more naturally part of that of China. But it does include Hong Kong and Macao, the British and Portuguese possessions on the south China coast, as their history is bound up with that of South East Asia rather than with that of China.

    With so many different countries being covered, the history of any one country is necessarily fragmented. The following index makes it possible to read the history of each, if so desired, more or less consecutively.

    Read the full report.

  • History

    Mandala and its Significance in Magindanao Muslim Society

    Mark S. Williams

    Starting as an Indic symbol for meditation, musings about the universe, and striving towards the end of suffering leading to Nirvana, the mandala has actually had a much more practical legacy for political leadership in which one central ‘divine king’ is flanked and protected in tributary relationship by a ‘circle of kings’ that owes the one ‘man of prowess’ their allegiance and devotion in some binding fashion. Used in Hindu India, Buddhist Southeast Asia, and also in the Islamic Malay regions, mandalic polities have seemingly defied the odds against other systems of governance that would vie against them for legitimacy and acceptability among the subject peoples under their spheres of influence. 

    Read the eBook


    Mandala Form Cities – Challenges to Asian Urbanization in the 21st Century

    Edited by: Ashok K. Dutt, Allen G. Noble, G. Venugopal and S. Subbiah

    The city in South Asia stretches back to pre-historic time. In some of these urban center efforts of early planning can still be discerned. They follow a mandala form and are thus related in some fashion to the Hindu (or less often Buddhist) religion (Noble 1998, 24)

    Read the eBook


    Japanese Mandalas: Representations of Sacred Geography

    Elizabeth ten Grotenhuis

    Anyone looking closely at the Diamond World mandala will probably be struck by its visual similarity to the city plan of Chang’an in the Tang period. 

    Read the eBook


    Mandalas and Yantras in the Hindu Traditions

    Gudrun Bühnemann

    Mandala patterns have had other far-reaching influences. They have, for example, had an impact on ancient town-planning.

    Read the eBook

  • History
    Feng Shui

    Geomancy: Ancient Chinese Urban Planning Principles Inspire Contemporary Cities

    Yong Ma

    This creative project introduces the general knowledge about Fengshui and focus on researching the ten Fengshui principles related to ancient Chinese urban planning, in order to find the inspiration for contemporary sustainable issues in urban planning. 

    Read the PDF.


    The Zangshu, or Book of Burial

    Guo Pu

    Read the Chapters.


    Fengshui Theory in Urban Landscape Planning

    Sun-Kee Hong, In-Ju Song, Jianguo Wu

    In this paper, we discuss recent concepts and methods of landscape ecology and urban planning from the viewpoint of Fengshui, the traditional land use patterns in Seoul, whose application has so far been restricted only to traditional land evaluation. We conclude that, to maintain the sustainability of the urban landscape, it is necessary to develop a new urban planning framework for the region that is based on the integration between landscape ecology principles with the traditional concepts of Fengshui.

    Read the PDF.